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The borders are re-opening! Has virtual reality been a friend or a foe to the tourism industry so far?

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics


Kim-Lim Tan, Ivy S.H. Hii, Wenqian Zhu, Choi-Meng Leong, Eliver Lin



Leveraging the technology acceptance model (TAM) and the stimulus–organism–response (S–O–R) theory, this paper aims to investigate how the utilitarian and hedonic factors in virtual reality (VR) technologies affect consumers' intention to travel in the endemic phase of COVID-19. At the same time, the study incorporated emotional engagement and two forms of trust as possible organisms for this model.


Through snowball sampling, data collected from 263 respondents were analysed using the partial least square structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM).


The findings revealed that among the different forms of hedonic and utilitarian factors, all but perceived entertainment has a significant positive relationship to emotional engagement. Additionally, emotional engagement positively influences trust in the product and seller. However, the results show that only trust in the seller has a significant relationship with travelling intention. Predictive analysis shows that the model displays a strong predictive power.


This study differentiates from the existing literature by investigating the effect of VR technologies on the two different forms of trust and emotional engagement on travelling intention. This study extends earlier studies by supplementing the explanatory perspective with a predictive focus, which is particularly important in making sound recommendations on managerial decision-making.

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